The equation between the complex environment and the complexity of operations had been rebalanced. Once again, the equation between management and operations also had to be rebalanced. You cannot increase the complexity of operations without increasing management’s capacity to handle the increase in complexity. This was done by massively increasing the autonomy of operational staff, so they could manage themselves. On the Toyota line, an assembly operator could stop the whole of the production line if he had a problem, a degree of control that was unthinkable at the time in the west.