if we think about the moment immediately following the Civil War, there was the invention of something called the Black Codes in every Southern state. And those codes were intended to use the criminal justice system to restrict the freedom and mobility of black people. “And if you crossed any line that they prescribed,” he continues, “you could be sold back to your former slave owner, not as a slave, but as a prisoner to work off your fine after an auction where you were resold to the highest bidder. It tells you something about the invention of the criminal justice system as a repressive tool to keep black people in their place, from the very moment where 95 percent of the black population became free. And it’s still with us.